Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or oval.
mussel, any of numerous bivalve mollusks belonging to the marine family Mytilidae and to the freshwater family Unionidae. Worldwide in distribution, they are most common in cool seas. Freshwater mussels, also known as naiads, include about 1,000 known species inhabiting streams, lakes, and ponds over most of the world.
Some species (e.g., the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis) are important as food in Europe and other parts of the world and are raised commercially. M. edulis, which attains lengths of up to 11 cm and is usually blue or purple, has been cultivated in Europe since the 13th century. Mussels are collected from deep water by means of dredges or rakes.
The two species of the tiny zebra mussel (genus Dreissena) are prominent freshwater pests, known to proliferate readily and to adhere in great numbers to virtually any surface. The zebra mussel’s filtering activities tend to wipe out phytoplankton, disrupting the aquatic food chain that supports many fish species and driving many native mussel species to extinction. In addition, its massive clustering on water-intake valves and pipes, bridge abutments, and other structures can cause severe commercial damage. The zebra mussel made its first known attack on Europe in the early 1800s, proliferated in the 20th century, and was carried (probably in ship ballast water) to North America about 1986, eventually invading all the Great Lakes. At present, zebra mussels are spreading to inland lakes and other waterways in parts of the United States.
The yellow mussel (Mytilus citrinus), from southern Florida to the Caribbean, is a light brownish yellow. The hooked, or bent, mussel (M. recurvus), from New England to the Caribbean, attains lengths of about 4 cm and is greenish brown to purplish black. The scorched mussel (M. exustus), from North Carolina to the Caribbean, is bluish gray and about 2.5 cm long.
The largest family of freshwater mussels is the Unionidae, with about 750 species, the greatest number of which occur in the United States. Many unionid species also live in Southeast Asian waters. Several North American unionids are threatened by habitat degradation, damming, and the invasion of zebra mussels.